In the field of archaeology, there is a term for the practice of living in one place. It is called sedentism. Sedentism and the development of agriculture go hand in hand with what is known as the Agricultural Revolution.
The Agricultural Revolution began approximately ten thousand years ago. It is thought to have begun most prominently in the Middle East, in what is known as the Fertile Crescent. The first crops grown by man are thought to be wheat and barley. See this timeline of the events of the Agricultural Revolution here.